Two critical pathways may impact the future of MS1

Occurring exclusively in the CNS, smoldering neuroinflammation has been largely inaccessible.1

Close-up of smoldering match brain

Emerging science reveals that smoldering neuroinflammation is a primary driver of disease progression that results in disability accumulation, and directly addressing this pathway remains an unmet need1,2

Direct targeting of both acute neuroinflammatory pathways in the periphery and smoldering neuroinflammation by penetrating into the CNS at pharmacologically relevant levels may help address relapses, MRI activity, and disease progression that ultimately results in disability accumulation.1

Both pathways play an important role1,2

Smoldering and acute neuroinflammation concurrently drive consequences in RMS

Addressing microglia in the CNS as well as B cells and T cells in the periphery may improve long-term outcomes1

Targeting both acute and smoldering neuroinflammation is important in addressing relapses and acute lesion activity and directly impacting the mechanisms that drive disease progression and resulting disability accumulation.1

Both acute and smoldering neuroinflammation may occur from the onset. Addressing both pathways early on could help prevent disease progression and impact long-term disability outcomes in patients with MS1,4,5

Keep learning about the future of MS management for your patients


  1. Giovannoni G, Popescu V, Wuerfel J, et al. Smouldering multiple sclerosis: the ‘real MS’. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2022;15:17562864211066751. doi:10.1177/17562864211066751
  2. Häusser-Kinzel S, Weber MS. The role of B cells and antibodies in multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and related disorders. Front Immunol. 2019;10:201.
  3. Kuhlmann T, Moccia M, Coetzee T, et al. Multiple sclerosis progression: time for a new mechanism-driven framework. Lancet Neurol. 2023;22(1):78-88.
  4. Simpson A, Mowry EM, Newsome SD. Early aggressive treatment approaches for multiple sclerosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2021;23(7):19.
  5. Scalfari A. MS can be considered a primary progressive disease in all cases, but some patients have superimposed relapses - Yes. Mult Scler. 2021;27(7):1002-1004.